1 1 Kings 17:2-6.
2 Leahy, p. 5, and Tony Angell, Ravens, Crows, Magpies and Jays, Seattle and
London: University of Washington Press,
3 Elders Angela Sidney, Kitty Smith, and Rachel Dawson,
My Stories are my Wealth, as told
to Julie Cruikshank, for the Council of Yukon Indians.
Whitehorse: Willow Printers, 1977:IV.
4 Annemarie de Waal Malefijt, Religion and Culture: An Introduction to Anthropology of Religion, New York: The Macmillan Company,
5 The foregoing crow legends are summarized accounts of legends by
Elders Angela Sidney, Kitty Smith, and Rachel Dawson, in
My Stories are my Wealth, pp.
6 Arthur C. Bent, Life
Histories of North American Jays, Crows, and Titmice, New York:
Dover Publications Inc., 1946:226.
7 Christopher Leahy, The
Birdwatcher's Companion, illustrated by Gordon Morrison, New
York: Hill and Wang, A Division of Farrar, Straus and Giroux,
Published simultaneously by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd., Toronto, Canada,
9 Candace Savage, Bird Brains: The Intelligence of Crows, Ravens, Magpies and Jays, Greystone Books, Douglas & McIntyre,
Vancouver and Toronto, 1995, p. 86.
10 Angell, 1978:64.
11 Tony Angell, 1978:53. Crows are of much benefit in cleaning up waste
matters from farms, and the country side generally. As well,
people generally overlook the contribution crows make in controlling the
12 Angell, p. 81.
13 Robert W. Powell, "Operant Conditioning in the Common Crow (Corvus
brachyrhynchos)," The Auk, 1972, Vol. 89:738-742.
14 Irene M. Pepperberg, "A Communicative Approach to Animal Cognition: A
Study of Conceptual Abilities of an African Gray Parrot," in Cognitive
Ethology:The Minds of Other Animals, edited by Carolyn A. Ristau (Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1991), pp.
15 Florence Hubley of Tantallon, Nova Scotia, comments on this
characteristic of crows in her letter. She remarks, "We covered
him over at night with a box. He would snap at us if we touched him."
16 Francis Henry Allen, "The Aesthetic Sense in Birds as Illustrated by
the Crow," Auk, 1919, Vol. 36:112-113.
17 The common crow's ability to "imitate" extends beyond mimicking or
mocking behaviours. J.P. Porter writes that "One crow mastered a
novel door-opening response by watching another bird that had been
trained previously to open the door in a puzzle-box experiment. The crow's good memory permitted it to apply what it had observed the other crow doing." See J.P. Porter,
"Intelligence and Imitation in Birds: A Criterion of Imitation,"
American Journal of Psychology,
1910, Vol. 21:1-71.
18 Bent, 1946:226 ff.
19 Crows seem to enjoy moving objects around - even playing with them.
Joan Stiles comments, "One of his (Jake, the crow) most devilish
deeds, was swinging upside down on our neighbour's clean clothes on the
clothes line. She would come running out with her broom to chase him away, he would just hover over her head and taunt her. When she went inside he would take the
clothes pins off the clothes, let them drop to the ground, and then play
20 See Millicent Flicken, "Avian Play," The Auk, 1977, Vol.
21 Fred J. Pierce, "A Crow that Nearly Looped the Loop,"
Wilson Bulletin, 1923, Vol. 34:115.
22 Among other things, the crow may be the means for receiving guidance,
inspiration, and communication from the Spirit world --
therefore, it may be called a messenger.